«Proceedings of V International scientific and practical conference of students and young scientists “Modern University Sport Science” V International scientific and ...»
RUSSIAN STATE UNIVERSITY OF PHYSICAL
EDUCATION, SPORT, YOUTH AND TOURISM (GTSOLIFK)
of V International scientific and practical
conference of students and young scientists
“Modern University Sport Science”
V International scientific and practical conference of students
and young scientists Modern University Sport Science
November, 10-12, 2010 Moscow 2011 2 ISBN 978-5904156-16-9 УДК 796.894.015 ББК 75.6 С23 Publication of scientific issues. The V International scientific and practical conference of students and young scientists "Modern University Sport Science";
RSUPESY&T. – M., 2010. – 125 p.
This publication considers materials of V International scientific and practical conference of students and young scientists "Modern University Sport Science". This publication considers issues of theory and methods of physical education, social aspects, sports biomechanics, physiology, history and theory of sport. This publication is for the workers in the field of physical education and sports, representatives of Higher Educational Establishments, students, post-graduates, coaches and athletes.
УДК 796.894. ISBN 978-5904156-16- © Scientific department RSUPESY&T,
ТACTICO-PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAINING OF A TENNIS PLAYER…………... Aljoa A.
BASIC MOTOR STATUS OF STUDENTS IN FUNCTIONOF SWIMMING SKILLS ESTIMATION………………………………………….. Skorodumova A., Baranov I.
THE PECULIARITIES OF HIGH-SPEED QUALIFICATIONOF 11-16 YEARS OLD TENNIS PLAYERS……………………………………… Diyachkovskiy E., Borisova T.
THE INFLUENCE TO MOTOR ACTIVITY ON THE GENERALPHYSICAL PREPAREDNESS SENIOR CLASSES………………………………. Goncharenko T.
SUBJECT: AN ANALYSIS OF THE AMERICAN SWIMMING SYSTEM……..Grigoriants S.
CHESS PLAYER'S THINKING PROCESS AND QUALITIES OF CHESSTHINKING DURING THE COMPETITIO………………………………………... Hitrova T.
THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EMOTIONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL
PROFESSIONAL BURNOUT AMONG THE SPECIALISTSIN RECREATIVE TOURISM AND MANAGEMENT……………………………. Ivanov L.
DEVELOPING PLAYERS ACCORDING TO THEIR PSYCHOLOGICALFEATURES…………………………………………………………………………. Kataeva I., Sopov V.
MOTIVATIONAL ATTRACTIVENESS OF BIATHLONFOR CHILDREN 9-10 YEARS OLD……………………………………………… Kosobudskaya O., Ershova N.
SELF- CONCEPTION FORMATION AT FUTURE SPECIALISTSIN SPHERE OF PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORT…………………………. Kuznetsov A., Scorodumova A.
THE STRUCTURE OF TOURNAMENT MICRO-CYCLE OF JUNIORTENNIS PLAYERS OF 15-16 YEARS OLD……………………………………… Laptev S.
INCREASING FACTORS OF A LEVEL OF STUDENT'SBASKETBALL DEVELOPMENT…………………………………………………. Lavrentjeva D., Aleksandrov A., Glembockaja J.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHOOSING A SWIMMING STYLEIN THE COURSE OF TRAINING 6-8 YEAR OLD CHILDREN………………... Okorokov M.
BOWLING BALL MOTION DIFFERENTIAL MODEL…………………………. Pakhamovich N.
INVESTIGATION OF THE COMPLEX COORDINATION AND
THE STABILITY OF JUMPS IN THE SECOND PART OF FIGURESKATERS` FREE PROGRAMMES……………………………………………….. Saulite S., Cupriks L., FedotovaV.
KICK TECHNIQUES OF ERROR DETECTION AND PREVENTIONIN TAEKWON-DO ITF…………………………………………………………….. Taha S.
PHYSICAL PREPARATION AND ITS ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENTOF YOUNGSTERS…………………………………………………………………. Tumanova O., Antonova T.
CONSTRUCTIVE MOTOR TRAINING AS THE BASIS OF FUTURE
SPORTS SPECIALIST' PROFESSIONALISM AND THE WAYSOF ITS PERFECTION……………………………………………………………… Ursegov K., Kostikova L.
TRAINING AND COMPETITIVE LOADS OF HIGH QUALIFICATIONBASKETBALL PLAYERS IN YEAR CYCLE……………………………………. Yakubovskiy V., Yakubovskiy G., Ivanova T.
PSYCHOLOGY OF JUNIOR TENNIS PLAYER: TENNISCONFIDENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADVANTAGE………………………. Philosophic, Historical, Social and Cultural Aspects of Physical Education and Alexander A.
REVEALING THE PRINCIPLES OF PROMOTION AND
ADVANCEMENT OF WEBSITES (CASE STUDY ISVIDEO-SERVICE OF EUROSPORT – EUROSPORT PLAYER)………………... Averina S.
MATCH PERFORMANCE: THE WEAPON OR THEATRICAL ACTION?......... Borisov A., Skarzhinskaja E.
«RELATION OF STUDENTS TO LABOUR ACTIVITY DURINGSTUDY AT UNIVERSITY» (on an example of MGAFK students)……………….. Byikova A., Pidukov V., Fyodorov A.
THE ATTITUDE OF TEENAGERS TO THE HEALTH………………………….. Eminovi F., Stojkovic I., Dimoski S., Niki R.
PARTNERSHIP RELATION BETWEEN TEACHERS AND PARENTS
OF PUPILS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIESIN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION…………………………………………………….. Vinokurov A., Glembotskaja J.
THE MAIN ACTIVITY ASPECTS OF THE SPECIALIZED
ANNUAL EXHIBITION REHA CARE INTERNATIONAL
DISABLED PEOPLE REHABILITATION AND CARE(DUSSELDORF, OCTOBER 2010)………………………………………………... Glembotskaja J.
SOME SOCIOPEDAGOGICAL QUESTIONS OF THE PREPARATIONOF SPORTS TRANSLATORS……………………………………………………... Komarov O., Fyodorov A.
ELECTRONIC LEARNING AND METHODICAL COMPLEX
AS THE ELEMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTHIGH SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION…………………………………... Konyashkina S., Petrakova V.
DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT SPORT IN RUSSIA AS AN EXAMPLE
OF A MAJOR STUDENT ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATESOF AMERICA NCAA……………………………………………………………… Krotova E.
RELATION OF ETHICAL AND AESTHETIC PRINCIPLESN SPORTS GAMES………………………………………………………………... Kutsev V.
BRANDING AS THE BASE OF DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIONSOF THE EUROPEAN CHAMPIONSHIP ON FOOTBALL……………………… Lomako A., Shvetz L.
VICTORIYA KOMOVA: COMPONENTS OF THE SUCCESS…………………. LUIKA S.
SPORT STRATEGIC PLANNING IN LATVIA…………………………………... Melentev A.
MANAGEMENT OF EFFECTIVE TEAMBUILDING………………………....... Morozova O., Shvetz L., Smirnova E.
THE PHENOMENA OF DOPING IN THE CONSCIOUNESSOF STUDENTS SPECIALIZING IN SPORT…………………………………....... Pakhomova E.
SOCIOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCE CONSTRUCTION IN THE COURSE
OF ENGLISH CLASSES (THE MOSCOW STATE ACADEMYOF PHYSICAL EDUCATION)…………………………………………………….. Saushkina T., Skarzhinskaja E.
ASPECTS OF CHEERLEADING DEVELOPMENT…………………………....... Soskov B.
OLYMPISM IS A PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE……………………………………….. Timoshenko D., Shishova N.
VOLUNTEERS IN ORGANIZING SPORT EVENTS: FOREIGNEXPERIENCE ANALYSIS………………………………………………………… Udalova T.
ALL-RUSSIAN CONTEST PE LESSON OF THE XXI CENTURY:ANALYSIS OF REALIZATION OF THE PROJECT…………………………...... Herman Van Coppenolle
EDUCATING EUROPEAN AND WORLD LEADERS IN ADAPTEDPHYSICAL ACTIVITY. FROM THE EUROPEAN MASTERS (1991)
TO THE ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER (2005) AND THE ERASMUSMUNDUS DOCTORATE IN ADAPTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (2010)………. Danica Vasiljevi-Prodanovi, Fadilj Eminovi
THE ROLE OF SPORT AND PSYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN PREVENTIONOF OFFENDING…………………………………………………………………… Medical and Biological Aspects of Physical Education and Sports Balazh M.
PHYSICAL REHABILITATION OF THE PERSONS WITHMETABOLIC SYNDROME………………………………………………………. Kolesnik O.
RATIO OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC COMPONENTS
AND THEIRINFLUENCE ON WORKING CAPACITYOF MIDDLE DISTANCE RUNNERS…………………………………………… Kornienko T.
INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN PATTERNS OF BREATHING ANDPHYSICAL LOADING IN MIDDLE-DISTANCE RUNNERS………………….. Korshakov A.
ON MUSCULAR FORCE DEVELOPMENT BY THE METHOD OFMAGNETIC STIMULATION…………………………………………………….. Lescinsk M., Cupriks L., Lace A., Rozenstoka S.
ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY AND CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMDYNAMICS OF KETTLEBELL LIFTERS………………………………………. Zusa A., Lanka J., Vagyn A.
BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF FOREHAND IN MODERN TENNIS…….Borodin O., Polikarpova G.
PHENOMENON OF SOCHI 2014………………………………………………... Grechkin M., Petrakova V.
THE BASIC FEATURES OF PHYSICAL TRAINING AND SPORTS FORDISABLED PEOPLE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION……………………….. Melnikova N., Klimenko D.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WORLD WINTER UNIVERSIADESAND OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES……………………………………………… Masyuta V.
ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE AT THE OLYMPIC GAMESOLYMPIC CHAMPION MICHAEL PHELPS…………………………………… Melnikova N., Nikiforova A.
OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES: HOSTING AND LEGACY……………………... Melnikova N., Papenov Y.
YOUTH OLYMPIC GAMES: THE PROCESS OF THE FORMATION………... Basics of Theory and Methods of Physical Education and Sports, Sports Pedagogics and
ТACTICO-PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAINING OF A TENNIS PLAYERRussian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia Psychological aspects of playing activity are very important for improvement of tactical coaching of tennis players.
We consider tactical coaching of a tennis player as a combination of all impacts on her or his technical and mental abilities based on interrelationship of her or his mental and physical conditions, motor habits and cognitive skills, special mental characteristics.
In the current context a tennis player have to operate in extreme conditions of intense rivalry. The success in such a competitive struggle depends on well developed technical skills, good physical and mental readiness and also ability to fulfill one‘s potential during training session and, especially, during a match or series of matches.
There is therefore an increasing need to improve the system of evaluation of players` activities in different moments of a match, especially in the context of increased stress. It is also increasingly important to elaborate practical guidelines for improvement of players` training efficiency.
The relevant information can be obtained while evaluating players` technical and tactical movements, their mental manifestations in the context of an intense match and comparison of the obtained data with the relevant characteristics of the leading tennis players.
The analysis of a player‘s efficiency considering the stress level of a match is carried out on the basis of a special record which traces player‘s efficiency depending on the score.
Thus, the analysis of player‘s activities in the context of increased stress allows better understanding and exploring her or his personal features, specific conditions, stability and shots` performance, i.e. the level of her or his technical, tactical and mental readiness, dynamics of performance indicators in different moments of a match.
Comparison of the obtained data with psychological test findings allows differentiating training and competitive technical and tactical coaching, and also give an opportunity for better exercising a player‘s personality.
BASIC MOTOR STATUS OF STUDENTS IN FUNCTION OF
SWIMMING SKILLS ESTIMATIONAbstract. Freestyle technique swimming is the fastest way of swimming.
Results of 100 meter distance swimming, using this technique, is a part of swimming skills estimation of students. Lower extremities have important roll in swimming, as well in freestyle swimming (start, leg work during swimming and turn). This research has made an attempt to determine the contribution of monitored motor capability to the time of swimming at distance of 100 meter. To determine these motor capabilities of students, further tests were used: standing long jump test, 20 meters running test from high position, Cooper test and body-mass index as characteristic of morphology of examinees.
The results of the analyses multiple regression variance suggest the nonexistence of statistically important differences monitored characteristics to meter freestyle swimming ability (F 1.940 p.111).
Based on the results obtained, a sample of 94 students was further divided into three sub-samples according, to criterion of the results achieved during swimming.
For new-formed groups was determined the existence of statistically important differences (F 1.805 p.079).
The results show that the 20 meter runing test from high position most contribute to the difference among groups (50,74%).
Key words:students, swimming, basic motor status.
Bachelor student, Faculty od Sport and Physical Education
THE PECULIARITIES OF HIGH-SPEED QUALIFICATIONRussian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia Introduction Modern tendencies of development of world tennis are caused by universalization of the game characterized by necessity in rational combination of active game on a baseline with attacking actions at the net, and also increase of accuracy and force of shots, increase of game rate. In turn, such features of game make considerable demands to high-speed abilities of tennis players.
Well-known that speed is shown in elementary and complex forms. To elementary it is accepted to reckon: speed of simple and complex reaction; speed of single movement (at small external resistance) and frequency (rate) of movements.
To complex forms: starting "acceleration", performance of integral actions (run, swimming, etc.) Research purpose Reveal the peculiarities of high-speed qualification of 11-16 years old tennis players Research problems 1) Determine the peculiarities of movements of qualified adult and young tennis players at the official competitions.
2) Determine the rates of high-speed abilities of 11-16 years old tennis players.
- simple and complex reaction time during global work from different start positions - single movement time of left and right leg - acceleration time from different start positions Research methods 1) Analysis of literary sources.
2) Pedagogical testing with special panel, allowing to estimate:
- quickness of simple and complex reaction;
- single movement time of left and right leg;
- acceleration time from different start positions;
- height of the jump by flight time from different start positions;
3) Methods of mathematic statistics.
1. Analysis of literary sources.
The analysis of the researches spent in Russia and abroad has shown that to perform one shot the tennis player runs pieces up to 5 m. On the average men run for 95,7 %, juniors on "a fast" surface 86,5 % and on "a slow" surface – 83,0 % of all run pieces. Share of movements from 5 to 10 m in men‘s matches is 3,2 %, in junior‘s matches on "a fast" covering - 13,7 % and on "a slow" covering – 15,5 %, the other part – movements more than 10 m Table 1.
Tennis players for movements start from 3 various positions: run forward and backwards from «ready» position, run to the right pushing away with the left leg, and run to the left pushing away with the right leg.
Leading tennis players of the world and leading juniors during a match, both on "fast", and on «a slow covering» more often move in 4 directions: to the left – in 17, % of cases, to the right in 14,8 % of cases, forward in 54,3 % of cases and backwards in 13,5 % of cases [A.Skorodumova]. While on "a slow" covering – in 34,2 % of cases to the left, in 36,3 % of cases to the right, in 19,8 % of cases forward and in 10,6 % of cases backwards Pic. 2. From the presented Pic. 2 it is visible that on "a fast" covering it is necessary to do the most part of movements forward, however on "slow" - to the parties. Therefore, tennis players have often to start from various positions and push away with different leg.
For comparison tennis players of 13-14 years on "a slow" surface move to the left in 21 % of cases, to the right in 28 % of cases, forward on the left in 14 % and backwards to the left in 13 % of cases [O. Kuznetsova]. However, on "fast" - this ratio changes a little Pic.3.
2. Research organization.
Research was held on the basis of Tennis center RSUPCST. 52 tennis players have taken part in research: 24 persons of 11-12 years, 17 persons – 13-14 years and 11 persons – 15-16 years old, including members of youth national teams on the listed age groups. Testing consisted of 10 tests of high-speed and speed-power character with 3 attempts in each, during which speed of reaction and time of tasks performance were measured:
1) run on 5 m from «ready» position;
2) run on 5 m from position «an exit from shot on the left in the closed stand», i.e. standing the right side in relation to movement and making the start with the left leg;
3) run from position «an exit from shot on the right in the closed stand», i.e.
standing the left side in relation to movement and making the start with the right leg.
4) run from «ready» position with start by the left or right leg depending on the type of signal;
5) run or a jump upwards pushing away both legs from «ready» position depending on the type of signal.
6) single movement by the left leg, while standing;
7) single movement by the right leg, while standing;
8) jump upwards pushing away both legs from «ready» position;
9) jump upwards pushing away by the left leg;
10) jump upwards pushing away by the right leg;
3. Methods of mathematical statistics Mathematic-statistical processing of results of the pedagogical testing, conducted on the personal computer with use of programs StatSoft® STATISTICA 6.0 and Microsoft® Excel 2003, included calculation of descriptive indicators (mean, standard deviations), values of criteria (t-criterion of Uilkokson) and significance values. An error of a photo starting and a photo finishing devices 0,01 sec, the software 0,02 seconds.
1. During testing it is determined that the task - run from «ready» position with pushing away by the left or right leg depending on the type of signal has appeared impracticable for anybody from tennis players of 11-16 years.
2. Authentic differences between time indicators in each age group are determined: 11-12, 13-14 and 15-16 years:
- Overcoming 5 meter pieces depending on a start position, - Flight in high jumps depending on a start position, - Time of performance of single movement by left and right leg, - Simple reaction at run depending on a start position, - Simple reaction at high jumps pushing away by left and right leg, - Time of simple reaction at performance of single movement by a left and right leg, - Simple reaction in run on 5 meters from «ready» position and at high jumps pushing away by two legs.
Results are presented in Table 4.
3. Start performance at run on 5 m from «ready» position occurs at all age groups of tennis players with technical breaches which lead to increase in time spent for overcoming of a piece.
4. Average-group time indicators of movements and reaction of 11-16 years old tennis players are determined. Table 5.
ConclusionsResults of testing testify the necessity for working out a special method which will allow to level differences between the left and right leg on indicators of highspeed and speed-power qualification of 11-16 years old tennis players and have a big practical value and the importance for construction of effective process of training and productivity increase in competitive activity.
Table 1. Length of prorun pieces and frequency of their repetitions in Pieces length (м) matches (2006) Backwards 13,5 % Movements on “fast” surface. Movements on “slow” surface.
Pic. 2. Quantity of movements in different directions of world leading tennis players on the “fast” and “slow” surface (%).
To the left Movements on “fast” surface. Movements on “slow” surface.
Pic. 3. Quantity of movements in different directions of 13-14 years old tennis players on the “fast” and “slow” surface (%).
Table 4. Distinctions between indicators of reaction time of the left and right feet and movement time in various tasks in age groups 12, 14 and 16 years and under Simple reaction Complex reaction Simple reaction time indicators of performing the task and reaction of 11-16 years old boys Simple reaction Complex reaction Simple reaction Complex reaction
THE INFLUENCE TO MOTOR ACTIVITY ON THE GENERAL PHYSICAL
PREPAREDNESS SENIOR CLASSESUrgency. One of the most important problems modem society is an essential deterioration of the picture of health of the school age and constantly bearish level their phisical abilities. Urgency, theoretical, practical value of the problem has conditioned the choice of the subject of the studi «Influence to motor activity on the general phisical preparedness senior classes.The object of the studi: process to motor activity senior classes.The Subject of the study: condition, providing development to physical preparedness senior classes. The Purpose: experienced-experimental way to define efficiency to motor activity as process of the ensuring the development to physical preparedness senior classes.The problems: 1. Study the condition to motor activity senior school age in rural terrain. 2. Compare the level to physical preparedness to rural terrain and athlete senior school age. The Hypothesis. The Level to physical preparedness will increase if will is provided motor activity, corresponding to biological, social and pedagogical regularity of the development senior classes. An aplying following methods of the study were in work: 1. The Theoretical analysis on physical education in school and on labor education in family.
2. The Analysis and generalization documentary material. 3. The Pedagogical observation. 4. Experienced-experimental work (testing, processing got given). The organization of the study. The pedagogical experiment was organized on the base Chemoikinskoy secondary school. Two groups have took part in study (experimental and checking group) in amount 24 persons, 10 classes at age 15-16 years and 16- years. Essence of the pedagogical experiment was concluded in motivation of efficiency of the physical laboure as faculity of increasing to motor activity and level to physical preparedness senior school age. 1 stage. Konstatiruyuschiy. The study of the pedagogical literature on physical and labor education senior school age, establishment of the condition of physical health, development of the contents experienced-experimental work, selection of the complex of the methodses and study of the pedagogical literature on physical and labor education senior school age, establishment of the condition of physical health, development of the contents experienced-experimental work, selection of the complex of the methodses and studi of the pedagogical conditions of the undertaking the experiment. 2 stages. Forming.
The realization experienced-experimental work. 3 stages. Checking. Processing got result, data, of the senior school age. The Benchmark analysis to motor activity senior classes on: 1. The Broad jump (reter to); 2. Podty agivanie in buce – an exercise is executed on high cross-bar by dashing fellow overhand on direct hand on width shoulder. On command «mozhno» ispytuemyy is tightened before position, when chin rises on level of the cross-bar. The result is a number correct подтягиваний.
Exercise do betore the last possibilities of physical power. 1. F lexibility (refer to). 2.
Shuttle run 3*10 (sec). 3. Run on 60 metres (sec). 4. Run on 1000 metres (the mines) Results studies. On calculation of validity result between concerning with and not concerming with sport was revea lled following: difference between compared sample statistical not realistically. Thereby, the general physical preparedness, concerning with sport and not conceming with sport do not differ. The Average results broad jump checking group before experiment 17,2 amounts once, beside experimental group – 17,3; after experiment beside checking group – 18,9., beside experimental group – 21,2. The Average results on before experiment beside checking group besore experiment – 53,6, beside experimental groupe – 49,8; after experiment beside checking group – 52,3; beside experimental group – 56,2. The Average results on run 60 m. Before experiment beside checking groupe – 35,9, beside experimental groupe – 37,3; after experiment beside checking group – 34,9;
beside experimental group – 40,4. The Average results on run 1000 m. Befor experiment beside checking group – 35,9, beside experimental groupe – 37,3; beside experimental group – 40,4. The Finding. The Differentiated approach, undertaking burn-in occupation in combination with physical labour allow to raise the level to physical preparedness senior classes. The conclusion. Called on by us studies have shown: types to motor activity – a bum-in occupations and physical labour are an efficient facility on physical development, raise the level to physical preparedness uchaschihsya senior classes. Designed experimental program has shown efficiency on development of the physical preparedness senior classes. The results of the study have shown that physical labour and bum-in occupations effectively influence upon the general physical development, on the general picture of health senior classes and requires the literate individual pedagogical approache. Detyam, net concerming with sport, is recommended regularly execute the physical labour for the general physical ton, for health and for physical development.
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SUBJECT: AN ANALYSIS OF THE AMERICAN SWIMMING SYSTEMRussian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia Introduction Since its appearance on the earth people have always been associated with a water.
All times the water was very important for the people's lives.
After all, at the first hitting in the water, man drowns. Therefore, swimming -is a vital skill that is associated with development in the aquatic environment and the ability to move around in it.
Overview Swimming is one of the oldest sports.
It includes the competitions on the distances from 50 to 1500 meters (in the pool).
There are 4 styles of swimming: freestyle, breaststroke, butterfly and backstroke; and also combined swimming and command relay.
Winner- is the person or command which comes to the finish first.
Research Objectives 1. Define contemporary composition of the theory and methods of the American swimming system.
2. Analyze of the American methods of teaching children how to swim.
3. Identify of the positive and negative sides of the American swimming system Methods of investigation 1. Analysis of the theoretical and methodical literature of the American swimming system.
2. Analysis of the American program and methods of swim training.
The puzzling perspective for outside observers is that there is no systematic or national organizational approach that ties together the three major preparatory systems (or groups) for competitive swimming in the United States: High school (ages: 14-18),college (ages: 17-22) and club (ages: babies through college).
For all of these groups, there is often little or no certification standard required to become a coach.
From the future coach hardly does not need any training or educational programs, education in this field and no basic knowledge on safety and first aid.
The structure of the American swimming system in the American high schools have more in-school sport and athletic opportunities available for their students than most countries in the world.
Sports activities in high schools work during all school day and are included in school program as educational disciplines.
The variation in program structure and seasons across the country is enormous. In some states, boys and girls have the same seasons, in other states there are separate seasons for each.
Each of the 50 states is autonomous in setting up their own standards for athletic programs; there is no nationwide consistency in seasons.
There are many variations of the restrictions in time for the training process:
1. It may be limited to two hours a day.
2. It may be defined number of hours per week.
3. Restrictions may also be absent.
Coaching contact between the school coach and the athlete is also limited in some states, not in others. The reasons are to protect the athlete from overtraining.
Since there are national collegiate governing bodies for swimming, it is logical and necessary to have consistent training and competition seasons for the colleges and universities.
Women‘s collegiate championships are usually the week before the men‘s championships, and only rarely do they at the same time.
The national collegiate governing body is the National Collegiate Athletic Association.
In-season training time restrictions are 20 hours of training per week, with no more than 4 hours on any given day, and no Sundays.
Out-of-season restrictions are 8 hours per week.
There are 59 separate local swim committees. Each committee is responsible for administering USA Swimming activities in a defined geographical area and has its own set of bylaws under which it operates. The smallest committee has 539 yearround athletes, the largest has over 15,000.
There are approximately 2700 individual clubs across the country.
Clubs have no training restrictions, may have unlimited coach-athlete contact, choose which meets they will send qualified athletes to. Their training and competition seasons are planned to match up with the national and international competition schedules as decided by United States Swimming.
The lack of government or institutional funding and the lack of their own facilities is the biggest problem to many of these programs.
After the analysis of the American swimming system we have derived its‘ the positive and negative sides 1. The absence of systematic or national organizational approach 2. Low level of the coaches‘ professional skills 3. Lack of relationship between the coaches of the schools and clubs 4. Limited contact between the coach and the athlete 1. Early age of the elementary swimming 2. Ability of the swimmers to train in swimming pools at their schools 3. Well-funded of swimming and as a result, the provision schools, colleges and universities of all necessary material and technical base 4. Availability of swimming
CHESS PLAYER'S THINKING PROCESS AND QUALITIES OF CHESS
THINKING DURING THE COMPETITIORussian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia Chess has been officially declared as kind of sport in the end of XXI century. It was promoted in many respects by activity of FIDE. The decrease of role of informative, theoretical preparation and increase of the importance of sportive readiness of chess players has some reasons. Among them such as: reduction of time control, popularization of "knockout-tournaments" with the higher level of mental tension, rapid chess, blitz and development of "chess 960" (chess pieces are disposed non-standardly in initial position).
Chess are "informational" kind of sport. Obviously, training process in chess should include both information, and competitive components. It was possible to consider chess as simple board game at an early stage of the development of the chess game theory, when this theory was insignificant. The practice was an only method of perfecting at those times, as it was in many "usual" kinds of sports, at the initial stage of their formation. Such method promoted development of special mental qualities which were calling "chess talent" in that time. Nevertheless, the modern "theory of sport" demonstrates what it is far not the most effective method of training, specially for sportsmen of high level. Third chess world champion Jose Raul Capablanca is the highest example of this talent, among chess players of that time. He practically didn't work (in the standard understanding of this word) over chess. But, it is very indicative, that the majority of chess players definitely prefers Casablanca chances in the hypothetical game between Capablanca and "simply strong modern grandmaster" in chess 960. Chess 960 is a game, where all main chess principles are same as in classical chess, but the role of debut preparation (information knowledge) is minimal.
Today, it is possible for us to call this mysterious talent - a development of special mental qualities of chess player.
If one will examine a lots of games of the strongest competitions of last years with careful analysis of the errors which were made by strong grandmasters, will see that "information errors", (i.e. the errors connected with bad knowledge of the debut theory, some well-known plan or of elementary endgames) happened far less, than the errors connected with insufficient development of some key qualities of chess thinking. It is obvious, thus, that chess players should think about development and perfecting of these special qualities and it should play especial role in their training process.
Training process of athlete is directed on development of such physical qualities as strength, speed, flexibility, and it works quite well in the kinds of sport, which are connected with physical activity. However, the spectrum of these special "intellectual" chess qualities is still uncertain. And methods of their development aren't clear yet. Some leading modern chess coaches and experts, however, uses the methods of preparation of the chess players, which support development to of special qualities. Mark Dvoretsky (one of the most successful chess coaches of the world) has created the big card file of accurately selected exercises promoting development of special skills of chess thinking. This method partially informational (studying of various typical receptions etc.), but also partially directed on development of mental qualities. Such training system yields fine results and allows bringing up the young chess players up to the serious level of skill.
Nowadays, young American grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura is most illustrative example of efficiency of method of training based on development of special, necessary for chess player, mental qualities. Nakamura uses unique ways of development of strength in chess, which haven't something in common with traditional ones. Hikaru spends the most part of time, playing a blitz games on the Internet, including so called "bullet" (with control of time 1 minute for whole game) what always was considered as absolutely senseless and even harmful activity for chess players. Other grandmasters have much better debut preparation, nevertheless, Nakamura is able to outplay them in the further game, even receiving doubtful positions in a debut. Nakamura was able to bring up his mind's ability for very fast calculation and wonderful mental endurance thanks to many hours of intellectual work which was made by him. "It is possible to be surprised only by extraordinary adaptability of the American: change of time zones, a tournament format, time control - all is nothing for him..." - the chess press wrote after a convincing victory of Nakamura on very strong tournament of grandmasters, where in additional blitz games Nakamura has won (confidently with account 2-0) former world champion Ruslan Ponomarev. In August 2009 Nakamura has confirmed the brilliant competitive readiness, when became the world champion on chess 960; in the final stage he had crushed one of the strongest chess players of the world Levon Aronian with account 3.5 - 0.5. It is obvious that in chess 960 (at least, at today's level of development of this game) where debut preparation has no such huge importance, advantage in competitive readiness will determine the outcome, in most cases.
The special questionnaire of leading chess players and chess experts has been held in April 2009. The objective of questionnaire was to estimate the importance of mental qualities, defined on the basis of the analysis of games of the strongest competitions of last years. Results of questioning have been processed and partially reflected in the following tableau:
Qualities of chess thinking Average value of quality The most significant quality for the chess grandmaster is his mental endurance (stamina), as it clearly from the tableau. Such significant mental qualities as resoluteness, flexibility, quickness, were also included and estimated. The considerable divergence of opinions is observed in an estimation of other offered qualities, what was connected with specific features of each chess player and their self-assessment. Some chess players have refused to fill the questionnaire, or have filled it anonymously, explaining what some questions has very personal character.
That is interesting fact also.
Thus, having defined the mental qualities, most significant for successful competitive activity of the chess players, we will try to solve the following important task: creating an effective method of development of these qualities by means of special training system. Usage of the modern computer technologies will be especially effective for this aim. Thus, modern chess training system will allow effectively using databases, which contain set of chess exercises and time control means, what will help with the big accuracy regulate intension of training work, which is carried out by means of these exercises.
THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EMOTIONAL
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFESSIONAL BURNOUT AMONG THE
SPECIALISTS IN RECREATIVE TOURISM AND MANAGEMENTPsychological and emotional state of the people, who have a man-man type of job, including specialists of physical education, sport and tourism, is of great importance. During the last 20 years scientists faced up with more and more cases of emotional psychological professional burnout in jobs. This syndrome is said to be connected with the acceleration of the rhythm of life and the increase of mental and psychological pressure, and the permanent stress at work.
The workers of physical education, sport and tourism, have a recreation during their work and this is a significant advantage. To prove this theory we made the experiment, the aim of which was to examine if the workers of recreative tourism (RT) in Ulyanovsk region and the managers of MEGAFON, the Ulyanovsk regional department of Volga mobile communications company branch, are psychologically protected from professional burnout.
During the experiment w used the 3–component model of burnout syndrome by K.Maslach, S. Jackson. The results were subdivided into 3 scales / colons and were analyzed mathematically.
The workers (both men and women) of recreation tourism and subscriber maintenance, who took part into the experiment, had working experience no less than a year. Totally, there were 80 respondents and the number of women and men was equal.
The longevity of work in this or that sphere influences the analysis of emotional professional burnout greatly. According to this factor we can distinguish time intervals:
1. Workers with 1-5 years work experience turned out to be the most numerous group in both jobs.
2. There is the equal number of workers with 5-10 work experience.
3. There are by 3 times more workers of recreative tourism among the respondents, whose work experience is more than 10 years.
During the analysis of the data received, we came to conclusion that the rate of emotional burnout among the workers of RT in Ulyanovsk region is lower than the average in Russia. Whereas the figures of managers are higher. This results show us how different the emotional psychological components of these jobs are. RT workers in Ulyanovsk region have the lower level of emotional tension (16,5 + 3,2 c.u., picture 1) because they work in the open air, where the recreational powers influence a lot. Managers, on contrary, have a higher level (31.2 + 3,8 c.u.), because they have a routine office work. The level of emotional tension is closely connected with the reduction of personal achievements. But unlike it these figures of RT workers in Ulyanovsk region are equal to average level in Russia (31+2,14 c.u. и 31,5 c.u.
respectively, picture 1). It shows the high level of personal achievements of RT workers in Ulyanovsk. Managers‘ figures exceed an average ones and show us the level of physical and mental fatigue, personal distraction to the promlems of subscribers called the service department..
The level of depersonification of RT workers in Ulyanovsk region is 2 time higher (21+6,02 c.u., picture 1) than the average in Russia. It can be regarded as the sign of the change of relations within the staff, the spread of indifference, the lack of countenance and sympathetic understanding. Financial problems, the crude programme of tourism development in Ulyanovsk region and the lack of cooperation among organizations and groups, working in sphere of tourism, cause untapped personal achievements and high level of depersonification.
The level of depersonification among managers differs from average in Russia insignificantly. This is the indicative of demanding multistage personnel selection, which allows the workers of subscriber maintenance to give the appropriate assessment of their professional skills. This cause the higher psychological and emotional stability, which give possibility of professional self-actualizing. However, despite the careful selection, their level of emotional burnout is higher than the average in Russia. But this is typical for this profession.
The results of the research show us that the professional occupation of both RT workers and managers in Ulyanovsk region cause emotional burnout. So, 50% of respondents – RT workers have the signs of syndrome of professional burnout of varying intensity. Due to the recreational conditions in which they work, their emotional state is recovering. This prevent further development of professional emotional burnout, in spite of all the prerequisites for this syndrome. The professional occupation of managers also cause a professional burnout of varying intensity in nearly 100% cases.
Using the results of the research we can advise people to take up recreative tourism and physical education, because it help not only stay in one profession longer and keep healthy way of life, but also prevent the relation to work, colleagues, clients, relatives and friends from the change for the worse. Thereby, we should pay much attention to recreative actions, especially to recreative tourism for office workers with man – man type of job. The public support of recreation and health tourism in Russia is getting challenging nowadays.
References 1. Burlachuk L.F. Thesaurus of psychodiagnostics. / L.F. Burlachuk, S.M.
Morosov / St. Petersburg: Piter, 2001 – p. 91-92.
2. Solonkina O.V. Psychodiagnostics in tourism and hospitality management.
A book for higher schools. / O.V. Solonkina, D.M. Ramednik / M.: 2004. – p. 163DEVELOPING PLAYERS ACCORDING TO THEIR
PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURESRussian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia A distinctive feature of Russian tennis is a high level of professionalism among children. This professionalism is expressed in high-volume training and regular participation in a large number of competitions with intense rivalry. Therefore proper training should consider age-related particularities of young players. This will help to improve their current results, prepare them for future activities in the context of growing stress and also preserve and strengthen children‘s mental health, i. e. keep them healthy.
Children undergo the first stage of the Russian Junior National Team selection tests at the age of 10-12.
A review competition had been practiced in our country as one of the stages of the National Team selection for 20 years. Throughout this period a very positive experience has been accumulated and now it‘s time to revive this tradition. Indeed participation in a review competition offers an opportunity to thousands of children to come in view of National Team coaches and experts. A review competition gives often a unique opportunity for provincial children and their coaches to undergo scientific examination, get expert advice and also confirm their choice.
It is also important to identify using scientific achievements and practical evidence the most promising boys and girls and also draw up the ways of further individualization of their training, assure environment encouraging their advancement and elaborate strict training monitoring system.
We therefore aim to suggest a way to identify individual and age-related particularities of young players at the age of 10-12 and elaborate practical guidelines for their selection and mental conditioning. This is one of the mission tasks which helps to improve the efficiency of the competition activity and the training process in tennis.
MOTIVATIONAL ATTRACTIVENESS OF BIATHLONRussian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia Abstract: The question of healthiness of schoolchildren is very timely today.
In the data of ministry of public health the half of schoolchildren has a broken health.
One of reason of this is low physically activity - hipodinamia.
Modern schoolchildren living in big cities are spending many times by computer or TV-set. It has not good consequences for healthiness. An effective solution of this problem is regular physical activity. Physical education in school is very low for provision enough physical activity for children. Therefore, for healthy style of life of pupils it is necessary to doing sport regular. One of popular kind of sport giving various body-conditioning is biathlon.
It is necessary to know motivation of children 9-10 years old for doing biathlon for it becomes possible to improve the number of athletes in the team.
Objective of research: revelation of psychological factors, which motivate of children 9-10 years old for doing biathlon.
1. To research the reason of doing biathlon for children 9-10 years old;
2. To research the reason of refusal of biathlon;
3. To shape the list of recommendations for coaches. This list helps them to improve number of athletes in the team.
Methods of research:
1. It was devised special psychological questionnaires revealing main reasons for doing biathlon, reasons of refusal of sport and reasons of first visit in biathlon.
2. These questionnaires were completed by children 9-10 years old who doing biathlon. This process repeated 2 times a year. Total number of questioned children is 40.
3. Then it was statistical data processing 4. Then on the basis of findings was devised special recommendations for biathlon coaches which helps them to improve the number of athletes in the team.
1. Findings give allow saying that a main reason of going in for sports is presence of friendly cheerful team, ability to communicate with friends. 16 people (40%) are going in for sports because they know that in the training they have communication with each other and sport games. Not all children are doing biathlon for cheerful communication and games. 25% of subjects are dreaming of becoming professional athletes and to be Olympic champions. 8 questioned (20%) doing sport because they want become alike their older friends in sport. It is often when young athletes want to be alike with somebody from older stronger and popular people. And 15% go in for biathlon that learning ski, become strong and healthy. Of course children knew the benefit of sport from parents or physical education teacher.
2. Findings give allow saying that children think the main reason of refusal of biathlon is laziness (50%). 20% young athletes( 8 persons) thinks that their friend are refusing of biathlon because they have more interesting pastime. 15% of questioned children thinks the main reason of refuse of sport is absence of friends in the team.
And next reason is: there is a long way from home to the training, and parents have not got opportunity for leading their children to training ( 15%).
3. So it is revealed main reasons for first coming in biathlon. The most schoolchildren (40%) come to training at first time for interest or with friends together. 16 schoolchildren from all questioned call this reason. It happens that there are adult athletes at the school. Jung schoolchildren (25%) wish to be alike them and because go in for sport. The next frequent reason of coming in biathlon is recommendation of physical education teacher. And 15 % of all subjects doing for sport because their parents compel them doing it.
1. As a result it becomes clear that children 9-10 year old like communications with friends and outdoor games in sport the most. The coach must set up friendly team, which united not only trainings together but and joint events: competitions, team trips, walking tours and holidays together. For united friendly team it is necessary team events such as tea parties, walking tours, cleaning days, team celebrations, competitions, ect.
2. Many children are dreaming to be Olympic champions and it is recommending for coach to arrange more often competitions inside the team (1 time in 2 weeks) with awards of winners.
3. So coach can convince the parents of the benefit of biathlon. Thereby parents will stimulate the interest of children for doing sport.
4. Coach must be on friendly terms with physical education teacher because the teacher will refer schoolchildren to this coach for doing sports. It helps to coach to take a large team.
5. So coach must be worthy example for imitation. It is concern and appearance of coach and manners. Coach must be fair, benevolent and little strict.
“SELF”- CONCEPTION FORMATION AT FUTURE SPECIALISTS IN
SPHERE OF PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORTVelikie Luki State Academy of Physical Education and Sport, Russia Introduction. Modern requirements to the specialists make active a task of preparation of the purposeful, independent, creative person showing high level of culture, structurally overcoming arising stressful situations in life and activity.
Many psychologists suggest that the educational (training) process in high school influences much on developing self‘-conception in the whole. The certain vital positions defining the level of competence of the personality and professional are formed during the educational process.
The purpose of our study was to reveal the developed of self-conception at the future sports specialists at different level of studying at high school and to define the organizational-pedagogical conditions promoting its development.
To realize the purpose of the research the following tasks were carried out:
1. To study the students‘ ideas their ideal level of developed professionally important skills necessary for the sports specialists (I-ideal) (1st, 3d, 5th courses).
2. To study self- conception of developed professionally important skills, at sports specialists at the 1st, 3d, and 5th courses (I- real).
3. To reveal the distinctions in developed components of self-conception at different grade levels of the sports academy.
Methods. In our research we applied the following methods:
1. Special literature analysis.
2. Psychodiagnostics methods.
3. Pedagogical experiment 4. Methods of mathematic statistic.
54 students (aged 17-22) of the Velikie Luki state academy of physical culture and sport took part in the study.
Such qualities as empathy, reflection, tolerance, communicative skills, emotional flexibility, stress tolerance (stability) were examined.
Results. It was established that the level of formed of components of selfconception and components‘ development at different steps of training is unequal and has nonlinear character. The comparative analysis has shown that there were not reliable distinctions among I-ideal and I-real estimated at the students of the 1st course; there were reliable distinctions at students of the 3d course in such skills as:
communicative and organizational. As for the 5th year students there were reliable distinctions between I-ideal and I-real in all qualities estimated. These results testify that the students receive necessary professional knowledge, get some experience greatly influencing on self-conception developed.
It was revealed that the students trained in the system of psycho-pedagogical support had the level of the development of communication skills more than 59%, empathy -52%, tolerance – 59%, reflection – 72%, emotional flexibility – 53%.
These indicators are more than 14% higher than at students not involved in the experiment.
Conclusion. Thus, the application of the theoretical seminars, seminarpractical works, problem lectures, different kinds of games and problem tasks, individual consultations, psycho-pedagogical support and personal-focused approach promoted the professional becoming in the sphere of physical culture and sports and as a whole the development of self-conception.
THE STRUCTURE OF TOURNAMENT MICRO-CYCLE OF JUNIORRussian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia Actuality. Leading specialists in the sphere of sport preparation Ozolin, Matveev, Platonov, have proved that the process of training management is based on tournament activity. Specifically it accounts for work-out planning, the choice of means and methods for training, magnitudes of executed physical loads. In order to plan and carry out a training process most effectively it is necessary to know the magnitude of tournament loads, as well as the distribution of loads of different intensity among days of tournament micro cycles. Nowadays professional tennis payers are younger than in the past, in the world ranking there are players of 17 - yeas old. In the light of this the problem of earlier sport specialization arises. In order to gain high goals in the sport of greatest achievements, juniors of 15 – 16 years have to play at the level close to professional. It may be possible only if scientifically based system of planning and control of tournament and training loads are carried out.
Aim of work.Calculate the structure of tournament micro-cycles of juniors of 15 -16 years old.
1) Measure out the duration of tournament micro-cycles, quantity of play days in them.
2) Find out parameters of tournament loads:
a) Parameters of external and internal aspects of exertion, exactly the volume and intensity;
b) Magnitude of tournament loads;
3) Find out the distribution of different magnitude exertions among days of tournament micro cycles.
Research methods. Analysis of literary sources, pedagogical observation and survey of tournament activity of youths of 15 -16 years old with the help of stenograph for taking down tournament actions of the player and хрнометрирования, pulse rate, субтест метода «миокинетическая psychodiagnostics» - offered by Mire –i- Lopes. The results were analyzed with the help of methods of mathematical statistics.
Research results. We found out:
1) The duration of tournament micro-cycles, quantity of play days in them.
2) Parameters of tournament loads:
a) - Indices of external aspect of load of competitive matches.
Volume - match duration, pure time of the game during a match, the sum of played points and sum of fulfilled hits.
Intensity - rate/tempo of played points, motor density of the matches.
- Indices of internal aspect of load of competitive matches.
Volume - sum of heartbeats during the match.
Intensity - minimum, maximum frequencies of heartbeats, that can be observed in the course of match. Also we registered average indices of heartbeats during matches and performance with different rate of intensity.
b) Magnitude of tournament loads.
3) Variants distribution of different magnitude exertions among days of tournament micro cycles (pictures 1, 2, 3).
Picture 1. Variant of tournament micro cycle of tennis players of 15-16 years Picture 2. Variant of tournament micro cycle of tennis players of 15-16 years Picture 3. Variant of tournament micro cycle of tennis players of 15-16 years Bibliography 1. Анохин П. К. Философские аспекты теории функциональных систем:
избр. тр. / П. К. Анохин; Наука. - М 1978. – 400 с.
2. Васина Е. В. Соревновательные нагрузки теннисистов 13-14 лет:
автореф. дис. … канд. пед. н. / Васина Екатерина Валерьвна; Рос. гос. универ.
Физ. культуры спорта и туризма. – М., 2008. – 23 с.
3. Матвеев Л. П. Общая теория спорта : учебная книга для завершающих уровней высшего физкультурного образования / Л. П. Матвеев ; 4-й филиал Воениздата. – М., 1997. – 304 с.
4. Сахарова М. В. Проектирование макроциклов подготовки в игровых видах спорта: значение, сущность, технология: монография / М. В. Сахарова ;
Компания Спутник+. – М., 2005. – 309 с.
5. Скородумова А. П. Построение тренировки квалифицированных спортсменов в индивидуальных видах спортивных игр (на примере тенниса):
автореф. дис.... д-ра пед. наук / Скородумова Анна Петровна; Гос. центр. ордена Ленина институт физ. культуры. - М., 1990. – 49 с.
6. Скородумова А. П. Теннис как добиться успеха : монография / А. П.
Скородумова; Pro – press. – М. 1994. – 176 с.
INCREASING FACTORS OF A LEVEL OF STUDENT'S
BASKETBALL DEVELOPMENTRussian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia Absolutely, in the world much attention given to development of student's sports to what testify World University games, European and World championships among students on separate kinds of sport. In Russia - again created regional and AllRussia Student games, Sports Games and Championships on separate kinds of sport.
Acknowledgement of development of student's basketball is the following fact:
in 2008 and 2009 women's team Moscow Agricultural Academy became the Champion of Europe among student's teams, and in 2010 was the World champion.
Because of questionnaire, we have revealed that more than half of respondents doesn't arrange level of financing for its student's team; only in one high school there are off-budget sources of financing; 83 % of high schools have a gym which is responsible for the requirements to holding competitions on basketball; in more than half high schools the organization administration takes direct part in organizationalmethodical work with a team and visits matches with its participation.
59 % of respondents consider possible to prepare the basketball player of high qualification in the conditions of high school, and accordingly, 53 % of trainers have already prepared those.
Because of analysis of proceedings (Belov, Rapoport, Gzovsky and other) and competitive activity we have revealed any problems in modern student's basketball:
- poorly equipped material base of high schools, as the factor interfering highgrade interuniversity and inter-regional competitions on basketball for the further selection;
- a staff problem – graduates of higher educational institutes of physical education unwillingly go to work on physical training chairs as trainer, considering a low salary and great volume of work, including holding the physical-sports work in the evening and in the weekends. As result of it many student's commands, having huge potential, can't fully realize it;
- absence of regional competitions on basketball in the United planned schedule of the Ministry of sports, tourism and the youth policy, and as result – absence of financing;
- weak interest of local administration to competitions of entry level: the great attention is given to the All-Russia and world fights among students but lose the fact that selection on the above-stated competitions passes through the Championship of a city, region, district and etc.
The university management always put the highest tasks to coaches of the teams in different kinds of sport. Students of RSUPES&T throughout all time of existence are members of national and reserve national teams of the country.
Preparation of highly skilled players, trainers and specialists of basketball – one of priority directions in university activity.
In connection with that the level of performance of our students in basketball competitions isn't always high and demands certain growth, we offer the Concept of basketball development in RSUPES&T. In our opinion, it shall allow to raise basketball in university on qualitatively new level and to solve many problems which have existed in this kind of sport. It will be consist of 5 basic parts.
1. Introduction and range of problems 2. Description of condition of level of basketball development in RSUPES&T 3. Purposes and tasks on basketball development in RSUPES&T 4. Standard-legal and financial support 5. Extents of its development in RSUPES&T We, as well as many specialists of basketball, consider that reconstruction of the sports clubs as part of high schools structure realizing its activity in interaction with administration of university, chair of physical education, the trade-union and student's organizations which are the basic link of system of student's sports is necessary in high schools. It also is the primary object of our work on development of student's basketball. The sports club of high school solves following tasks:
• involving of student's youth, post-graduate students, teachers and personnel of high schools in regular exercises of physical culture and sports:;
• Training of physical and morally-strong-willed qualities, strengthening of health and disease decreasing, increasing of professional readiness level, social activity of all personnel of university;
• Organization and holding mass health-improving, physical and sports events;
• Creation of sports amateur consolidations, clubs, sections and teams on different kinds of sport;
Most of all we have interesting questions, concerning structures and maintenances of sports clubs on the basis of high schools. We have found out that in 47 % of high schools there are sports clubs with basketball department. 71 % interrogated have supported that by creation of sports clubs on the basis of high schools it is possible to raise quality of preparation of students-basketball players.
And, at last, 53 % of respondents consider, that exactly the club most effectively solves questions of development of student's basketball.
The conclusion is one - through system of sports clubs most successfully can develop both mass sports, and sports of the higher achievements. From what will be sports clubs in the future, what their qualitative specificity, essentially depends development not only basketball in particular, but also sports in the country as a whole.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHOOSING A SWIMMING STYLE IN THE
COURSE OF TRAINING 6-8 YEAR OLD CHILDRENThe urgency of this theme puts in that we suggest solving some problems using innovation approach in teaching of swimming. despite a great number of researches, and methodical workings out. Considerably it concerns to work with children, namely to groups of the initial stage of training. Existing programs of training have little difference from each other (Bulgakovaf N.Zh, 1983; Guzhalovskij A.A., 1983;
Makarenko L.P., 1985; Ganchar I.P., 1993; Pogrebnoj A.I., Marjanicheva E.G., 1999). These authors recommend beginning training with any exact swimming style (more often it is crawl on a breast).
Adaptation in water depends on adults and individual adaptive reactions of the organism, and also depends on gained impellent skills during lifetime. Hence, it is easier to teach the child than the teenager or the adult. As at early age impellent skills are just formed, or generated, but not so strong as the adult person‘s, therefore a long time for neutralization of their negative action at formation of new swimming skills isn't required.
However, in the methodical part of written programs hardly any account of individual features of children‘s movements in developing swimming` s strokes. In this regard, we have decided to apply the methodology developed by the choice of swimming‘s stroke on the basis of genetically determined structure of leg movements at during early studying. Thus a child can start swimming lessons from the style which he is predisposed. The incorporation of these features will allow:
• to form the technique of the choosing swimming stroke faster;
• to make the expression of interest on the child by the choosing swimming stroke ;
• to reduce the lack of attention from a teacher to the child as an individual.
In connection with the above mentioned, the relevance of research topic is the scientific search for ways to develop and improve methods of teaching swimming 6- year old children.
The aim of work- is methodology of choose swimming‘s stroke on the initial training.
Hypothesis. It was assumed that the inclusion of individual characteristics over choosing swimming‘s stroke will make the learning process more effectively.
The object of the study was a process of swimming training of 6-8 year old children.
The subject is selection‘s criteria of choosing swimming‘s stroke by the 6- year old children.
1) To determine the percentage of children are predisposed to simultaneous symmetric, simultaneous asymmetric and alternate structure of leg movements structure.
2) To develop and experimentally to prove a technique of training to swim children of 6-8 year-old.
To identify the influence of children‘s age on the structure of movements legs.
We used the following scientific methods:
1) Analysis of the literature.
2) Pedagogical observation.
3) Mathematical statistics.
Analysis of the literature. It was studied 25 sources, 20 of them, according to methodic swimming training of Russian authors and 5 foreign.
Pedagogical observation. The method was used with 6-8 year old children in the classroom for initial education to swimming. In pedagogical observation there were involved three coaches, who are counted the total number of trainees in lanes, where children learn to swim. Determined by how many children will choose in the process of free swimming, or that the structure of moving their feet: the simultaneous symmetric and asymmetric simultaneous and alternating.
Methods of mathematical statistics. We used mathematical functions of addition and determine the percent of the total.
Organization of the research.
At the period from September to October 2010 on the basis of Sports Complex «Neptune» in Balashikha was organized pedagogical observation, where were examined 37 children aged from 6 to 8 in the groups of swimming initial training.
The most suitable structure of leg movement was fulfilled at the period when the children were given the tim for free swimming at the beginning or at the end of a training.
Results of the research.
The data about choosing the structure of leg movement at children in groups of swimming of primary training were presented in the table number 1.
age 6 years old 7 years old 8 years old Results. Based on these data revealed that of all the views of children, simultaneous symmetrical movements have 6 children, which corresponds to 16.2%;
simultaneous asymmetric 4 children, which corresponds to 10.8%, alternately at children, which corresponds to 72,9%.
Conclusions. 1. It is evident that the majority of children chooses the alternate structure of the leg movements, followed by simultaneous symmetrical, and the third place asymmetric structure.
2. In addition to a personal conversation with the coaching staff it was found out that almost all participants of the conversation begin teaching children with crawl on a breast and on backstroke, without regard to individual predisposition of the structure of leg movements in the water.
3. As a result 27% of children were taught the swimming‘s stroke which is not appropriate to their coordinative predisposition, and it had a negative effect on the efficiency of swimming training.
BOWLING BALL MOTION DIFFERENTIAL MODEL
AbstractBowling game is not only an interesting and involving kind of sports but also it is a perfect physical and mathematical site. With the bowling game, we have an extremely seemingly simple situation: after the ball is released onto the lane its behavior is determined by a relatively small number of laws of mechanics. Their combined action results in interesting and entirely non-simple objective laws in the ball‘s behavior on its way to the target – the 10 pins specially arranged and the lane‘s end.
While the ball is moving along the lane it participates simultaneously in two kinds of motion: forward sliding and rotation interacting with each other to result in the ball‘s possible curvilinear trajectories. The ball‘s asymmetrical inner structure and varying from game to game the rules to apply oil onto the lane (the oiling pattern) make the game still more complicated and allow an experienced bowler to redistribute this curvature along the trajectory so as to provide the ball‘s most effective entrance in the pins area.
In this work, with reference to the Coulomb-Amontons law defining the sliding friction force, we setup a symmetrical ball motion mathematical model. This model is reduced to the second-order differential equation that allows for an interesting integral (sliding). Integrating this equation leads to the ball‘s parabolic trajectory whose position of vertex, direction of parabola axis and flatness of parabola branches are a complicated function of the initial conditions (ball release).
Based on the motion law general form we derive an explicit formula for the game parabola characteristics and their related non-dimensional parameters characterizing one or another game style, obtain explicit expressions for certain release parameters, and when the latter are not adhered to it results in ineffective bowling game – the track flare (formation of oil rings on the ball‘s surface).
This work is specific for a relative simplicity of the model and complexity of the effects that allow, with the use of the model, for a qualitative explanation and quantitative description. All the ball’s behaviour basic specifics discussed at bowlers training sessions with reference to the weak and inaccurate similarities and explanations, - we translate into a qualitative language of equations and formulas.
The work has a practical value since its results are the basis for a rational classification of the bowling game styles and allow bowling game purposeful planniing and correcting of individual tactics and techniques aimed to enhance the game effeciency.
INVESTIGATION OF THE COMPLEX COORDINATION AND THE
STABILITY OF JUMPS IN THE SECOND PART OF FIGURE
SKATERS` FREE PROGRAMMESRussian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia The Problem: statistic analysis of the second partof figure skaters` free programmes.
The Object of the Research: figure skaters (men and women):
A) Senior professional athletes taking part in The European Championships, in The World Championships and in The Olympic Games.
B) Junior professional athletes taking part in different Junior ISU competitions.
The Subject of the Research: free programmes of figure skaters of different sports qualification - Senior professional athletes and Junior professional athletes.
The Hypothesis of the Reseach:
A) The complex coordination and the stability of jumps in the second part of free programmes among the figure skaters who have the same sports qualification directly depend on sportsmen`s rating.
B) The complex coordination and the stability of jumps in the second part of figure skaters` free programmes directly depend on the sports qualification.
C) The complex coordination and the stability of jumps in the second part of free programmes for men are higher than for women.
The Aim of the Research: learning the difference of figure skaters` free programmes accoding to the new ISU Judging System paying attention to the second part of the programme. Researching the dependence of free programmes complex coordination on different factors.
The Tasks of the Reseach:
A) To make the statistic analysis of the complex coordination and of the stability of jumps in the second part of free programmes for men and women of different sports qualification.
B) To make the comparison of the complex coordination and of the stability of jumps in the second part of free programmes for figure skaters with different rating.
C) To make the comparison of the complex coordination and of the stability of jumps in the second part of free programmes for figure skaters of different sports qualification.
D) To make the comparison of the complex coordination and of the stability of jumps in the second part of free programmes for men and women.
The Methods of the Reseach:
A) Analysis of different literature including ISU judges` detailed protocols of different ISU competitions.
B) Video materials of different ISU competitions.
C) The method of mathematical statistics.
The problem of the research gives us an opportunity to see the dependence of the complex coordination in the second part of figure skaters` free programmes (because of the special credits for all jumps in the second part of free programmes) on different factors (sportsmen`s rating, their qualification and sex) and to see the influence of the complex coordination in the second part of the programmes on the final results.
KICK TECHNIQUES OF ERROR DETECTION AND PREVENTION IN
TAEKWON-DO ITFTaekwon-do ITF (International Taekwon-do federation) is a combat sport involving large number of kicks; it requires rapid and forceful kicking (Saulite 2010).
About fifty percent of taekwon-do ITF fight skills are related to the kicking techniques. Effective taekwon-do kicking techniques are most difficult to perfect, and require the use of the entire body to apply optimum force from a limited base of support (Shirley 1992).
In Taekwon-do movement studies mainly visual control methods are used (Романенко 2007). Instrumental methods would allow achieving not only qualitative, but also quantitative measures of movements of athletes (Гавердовский 2007).
The aim of the research is to find technical errors of athletes, which influence the time of the frontal roundhouse kick.
The subjects of the research are 10 taekwon-do athletes (age: 13±1.4 years, height: 166±6 cm, weight: 45±7 kg; experience in sports: 4±1.2 years), with blue and green-belt levels.
Athletes performed roundhouse kick from still position with front leg two times. Movement analysis was performed using two high speed Basler A602fc cameras (100 Hz) and SIMI Motion software. Light-reflecting markers were placed on three body landmarks: hip (Trochanter Major), knee (Condylus Lateralis) and ankle (Malleolus Lateralis). Cameras were located on one side of the calibrated movement volume at angles, which provide for both cameras maximal visibility of all three markers during the whole studied range of the movement. After video recording of the movements points were digitized with SIMI Motion 3D software.
Analysis of high speed video records allowed estimating biomechanical characteristics of the frontal roundhouse kick. To establish more rational kicking technique the kick time was correlated with the following biomechanical parameters:
maximal knee flexion angle at the end of preparatory phase, and ratio of kick preparatory phase time to kick execution phase time.
Figure 1. Correlation between angle of Figure 2. Correlation between knee maximal flexion and time of kick preparatory and kick phase proportion Relationship between maximal knee flexion angle and the kick time, and relationship between ratio of longer preparatory phase to shorter kicking phase and the kick time was estimated ( 0.01).
Conclusions.1. After analysis of biomechanical parameters of roundhouse kick it was concluded that athletes with smaller angle during maximal knee flexion also have a shorter kicking time, the same was true for those athletes having preparatory phase longer than kicking phase.
2. When mastering the roundhouse kick technique more attention should be paid to knee flexion in preparatory phase in order to achieve shorter kicking time.
3. We suppose that decrease of kicking time at smaller knee angles in initial phase is related to decrease of moment of inertia.
4. Decrease of kicking time in this case may be also related to more active use of thigh frontal muscles (Quadriceps femoris) in eccentric mode.
References.1. Гавердовский Ю.К. (2007). Обучение спортивным упражнениям.
Биомеханика. Методология. Дидактика. – Москва: Физкультура и спорт, 912 с.
2. Романенко В.В. (2007). Построение биомеханических моделей основных технических примов выполняемых ногами для таэквондистовновичков // Слобожанський науково-спортивний вісник: Зб.наук. пр. – Харьков:
ХДАФК. – № 12, c.281-285.
3. Saulite S., Cupriks L., Fedotova V. (2010). Biomechanical analysis of taekwon-do ITF front-leg rounhouse kick. 3rd Baltic Sport Science conference.
Physical activity and sport in changing society: research, theory, practice and management. Abstracts. April 29 - May 1, 2010, Riga, Latvia, pp. 48-49.
4. Shirley Mark E. (1992). The taekwondo side kick: a kinesiological analysis with strength and conditioning principles. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal. Volume 14, Number 5, pp. 7.
Project Support for sports science Nr. 2009/0155/1DP/22.214.171.124.2/09/IPIA/VIAA/
PHYSICAL PREPARATION AND ITS ROLE IN THE
DEVELOPMENT OF YOUNGSTERSWhen we talk about mental health and subjective well-being one has to mention the role of physical activity, exercise and sport. What kind of effects can they have? At this point we have to differentiate between physical effects and psychological effects of physical activities. We know that physical activity and sport increase physical fitness, in a longitudinal perspective they reduce the risk of mortality and decrease cardiovascular diseases. Physical exercise embedded in an active lifestyle also prevents overweight and obesity.
Proper physical preparation provides youngsters with an opportunity to:
• Develop fundamental motor skills in stability, locomotors, and manipulative domains through activities that promote balance, coordination and agility. These motor skills (Hopping, bounding, throwing, running) must be acquired in a general sport environment before complex, sport-specific skills can be mastered.
• Develop the Five "S‘s (stamina, strength, speed, suppleness, and skill) which promote on-snow skill acquisition and development.
• Develop a positive self concept, and social skills, while experiencing enjoyable,challenging situations.
In fact we should be aware that the period between six and ten years of age is one of the most important periods of motor development in children. It is during this time that children are developmentally ready to acquire the general,fundamental movements (such as running, hopping, bounding, jumping, and throwing) that are the basis for all sports and games. These general skills must be practiced and mastered before sport specific skills can be learned successfully.
If fundamental motor skill training is not optimized between the ages of six and ten, the loss in motor development will be difficult to recapture.
Besides,we know that young people want to enjoy sport. If young people enjoy their earlier experiences of sport they are more likely to stay involved long term, returning many benefits in terms of the health and well being of our future adult population. Focusing on fun and fair play and the importance of participation, best effort and enjoyment will encourage young people to stay involved, to demonstrate enjoyment and equality and to achieve fair play.
Finilly,involvement in sport has numerous benefits for young people.
Throughout the early years of life, physical activity plays a key part in young people‘s physical, social and mental development. All forms of activity have a part to play over the years. Babies learn and develop physical capabilities through play;
toddlers develop key social skills through games with others; and young people develop basic skills and understanding of rules and team membership through sport and physical education.
«CONSTRUCTIVE MOTOR TRAINING AS THE BASIS OF FUTURE
SPORTS SPECIALIST' PROFESSIONALISM AND THE WAYS OF ITSVelikie Luki State Academy of Physical Education and Sport, Russia Introduction. Realization of a qualitatively new perspective approach to perfection of the system of vocational training in physical education and sport assumes training of specialists on the basis a harmonious development of individuals special, professionally important skills and qualities.
Despite a wide range of researches in the field of professional pedagogical training, the questions of working out the technologies directed to perfection of constructive motor fitness, as an integral part of sport teachers skills, were not practically examined. Though the orientation, pithiness and productivity of specialists pedagogical activity and the whole process of physical education depend much on this component of professionalism.
We have assumed that introduction of the constructive motor training technology, taking account of various sports specializations and methodical features of fitness aerobics, will allow to raise not only the efficiency of sports teachers motor training, but also the level of didactic preparedness of students of physical culture higher educational establishment as a whole.
Methods. In our research we applied psycho- pedagogical testing of main types of motor memory, medico – biological testing with the use of electroneuromyography and a multi-joint Biodex complex and the methods of mathematical statistics. During the experiment experts estimation was made. The subjects of the pedagogical experiment were four-year students of the specialization « Physical Culture and Sport». The experiment was carried out at the lessons of musical rhythmics and shaping.
Results. The findings of preliminary researches have allowed to prove theoretically the experimental technology of constructive motor training in physical education schools with the account of distinctions of sports specializations and to work out a block modular system of educational tasks which allows to develop students both motor and constructive skills at the same time.
Each of the worked out modules in the system of problem tasks of various complexity took into account the specifics of professional pedagogical activity, the skill being formed and the features of displaying motor memory components and assumed its forming with the account of memory criteria.